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Wednesday, 13 November 2019

Understanding Heart Disease

Heart disease is a condition of heart disorder experiencing interference. The form of disorder itself can vary. There are disturbances in the heart's blood vessels, heart rhythm, heart valves, or congenital disorders born. The heart is a muscle that is divided into four spaces. Two rooms at the top are the right and left atrium. Two back spaces are located at the bottom, the right and left ventricle. Between the right and left chamber is separated by the muscular wall (septum) that serves to prevent the mixing of oxygen-rich blood with the blood of poor oxygen.

 The main function of heart is to drain oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body. After all organs of the body use oxygen in the blood, the poor blood of oxygen returns to the heart (right atrium), to be forwarded to the right ventricle through tricuspid valve. After the blood meets the right ventricle, tricuspid valve will close the usefulness of preventing blood from returning to the right atrium. Then, when the right ventricle contracts, the poor blood of oxygen will appear from the heart through the pulmonary valve and the pulmonary artery, then brought to the lungs to be filled with oxygen. The blood that has been enriched by oxygen, after it is taken to the left atrium through the pulmonary vein. When the left atrium contracts, the blood is passed to the left ventricle through the mitral valve. Once the left ventricle is filled with blood, the mitral valve closes to prevent the blood from returning to the left atrium. Then, the left ventricle will contract, and the blood will be streamed to all the body through the aortic valve. The circulatory cycle will remain repetitive.




Types of heart disease
The term heart disease involves a wide range of disorders in the heart, among others:
Coronary artery disease (coronary heart disease) – narrowing of the heart blood vessels.
Arrhythmias – Disorders of the heart rhythm.
Congenital heart disease – heart abnormalities from birth.
Cardiomyopathy – disorders of the heart muscle.
Cardiac infections – infections of the heart due to bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
Diseases of the heart valve – disorders in one or four erroneous heart valves.

HIV And AIDS Prevention


Until this time, no vaccine was able to prevent HIV infection. However, infection is prevented by more than one of the following:


 Use a new condom every sex related, whether sex is through the vagina or through the anus. When deciding on a lubricant condom, make sure the lubricant is made of basic water. Avoid condoms with lubricants made from basic oil, because it is able to cause condoms leaked. For oral sex, take advantage of unlubricated condoms.
Avoid having sex with more coming from one partner. Tell your spouse if you are positive in HIV, so that your spouse has HIV test. Discuss with the doctor if you are diagnosed with HIV positive in pregnancy, regarding subsequent treatment and plan of childbirth, to prevent transmission from mother to fetus.
For men, it is recommended circumcision to reduce the risk of HIV infection.
Immediately to the doctor if it is suspected to have been infected with HIV, if it is related to sex with HIV sufferers. The Doctor is able to prescribe post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) medication, to be consumed for 28 days. PEP drug is a combination of 3 antiretroviral drugs, which are able to prevent the growth of HIV infection. Nevertheless, the therapy with PEP must begin a maximum of 3 days after a viral infection occurs.


HIV And AIDS Treatment


Although until this time there is no cure for HIV, but there are medicine styles that are able to slow down the growth of viruses. This type of drug is called antiretroviral (ARV). ARV works together by discourage the elements that the HIV virus needs to multiply, and inhibit the HIV virus from destroying CD4 cells. Some of the ARV medicinal styles, among others:
Efavirenz
Etravirine
Nevirapine
Lamivudine
Zidovudine
While taking antiretroviral drugs, doctors will monitor the quantity of viruses and CD4 cells to assess the patient's response to treatment. Calculate CD4 cells will be done every 3-6 months. While the HIV RNA check is done since the beginning of treatment, continued every 3-4 months throughout the period of treatment.

Patients should immediately consume ARV so diagnosed with HIV, so that the growth of HIV virus is able to be controlled. Delay treatment will cause the virus to still cause damage to the immune system and increase the risk of HIV sufferers in AIDS attack. In addition, it is absolutely for patients to consume ARVS according to doctor's guidelines. Skipping taking the drug will cause HIV viruses to develop more rapidly and exacerbate the patient's condition. When the patient misses the schedule of consuming the drug, immediately drink so remember, and forever follow the next schedule. But suppose that the dose missed a lot, directly talk with the doctor. The Doctor is able to change the prescription or dose medication according to the patient's condition.
HIV patients include being able to consume more than 1 ARV drug in a day. Therefore, patients should understand the side effects arising from consuming this drug, including:
Diarrhea.
Nausea and vomiting.
Dry mouth.
Bone brittleness.
High blood sugar levels.
Abnormal cholesterol levels.
Muscle tissue Damage (rhabdomyolysis).
Heart disease.
Dizziness.
Headaches.
Sleeplessness.
The body feels tired.

Monday, 11 November 2019

Diagnosis Of HIV And AIDS


To determine if the patient is HIV-infected, the kudu is executed by HIV test. Screening is carried out by taking over blood samples or urine of the patient for investigation in the laboratory. Screening types to detect HIV are:

Antibody test. This test has the purpose of detecting antibodies produced by the body to fight HIV infection. Although accurate, the kudu pas 3-12 weeks so that the amount of antibodies in the body is adequate high to detected a test fitting.
Antigens test. Antigen tests have the purpose of detecting p24, a protein that is derived from HIV virus. Antigen tests can be executed 2-6 weeks after the patient is infected.



When screening shows the patient is infected with HIV (HIV positive), then the patient is undergoing a subsequent test. In addition to ensuring the screening results, the test can help the doctor clear the infection steps suffered, and also choose the appropriate treatment method. Just like screening, this test is carried out by taking over the blood samples of the patient, to be examined in the laboratory. Some of these tests include:

Count CD4 cells. CD4 is a member derived from the white blood cells destroyed by HIV. Therefore, there is a slight amount of CD4, so perhaps a person is attacked by AIDS. Under normal circumstances, CD4 counts are in the range of 500-1400 cells per cubic millimetre of blood. HIV infection develops into AIDS such as the result of the CD4 cell calculation below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
Viral load test (HIV RNA). Viral load tests have a purpose to calculate RNA, a member derived from a doubling HIV virus that benefits themselves. The amount of RNA more than 100,000 copies per milliliter of blood, a sign of HIV infection has recently occurred or is not handled. While the amount of RNA under 10,000 copies per milliliter of blood, indicates a viral growth that is not too fast. However, the condition always triggers the damage slowly against the immune process.
Resistance tests (immunity) to the drug. Some HIV subtypes are known to be immune to anti-HIV drugs. Through this test, doctors can select the style of anti HIV medication that is suitable for patients.

Causes Of HIV And AIDS


AIDS caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV that enters the body will destroy CD4 cells. CD4 cells are the derived part of the white blood cells against infection. The fewer CD4 cells in the body, the more prolonged the immune process of one's body.
HIV transmission occurs when blood, sperm, or vaginal fluid comes from someone infected into another person's body. This can happen through various means, among others:

Sex. HIV infection can occur through sex interactions either through the vagina or anal. Although it is too rare, HIV is included to be transmitted through oral sex. However, the transmission through oral sex will only occur if there is an open wound in the mouth of the sufferer, if such as bleeding gums or canker sores.
Share the syringe. Sharing the use of syringes with HIV sufferers, is a one-step mistake that can cause a person to be infected with HIV. For example, using a syringe together with a tattoo, or when using an injectable NAPZA.

Blood transfusions. HIV transmission can occur when a person receives a blood donation from an HIV sufferer.
In addition to the various steps above, HIV may be transmitted from the pregnant mother to the fetus it contains. The transmission of HIV virus to children is included in the process of childbirth, or through breast milk during breastfeeding.

Please note, HIV does not spread through skin contact such as shaking hands or embracing with HIV sufferers. Transmission may not occur through the saliva, if the sufferer has a thrush, bleeding gums, or an open wound in the mouth.

AIDS Risk Factors
HIV can infect everyone from all ages. However, the risk of contracting HIV is higher against uncircumcised men, whether heterosexual men or male sex males. The risk of contracting HIV is higher among individuals with a number of factors, including:

Sexual intercourse without a condom. The risk of transmission will be higher through the interaction of the hardcore sex, and the joint sex interactions change partner.
Suffer from sexually transmitted infections. Most sexually transmitted infections result in open wounds in the genital sufferer, thereby raising the risk of contracting HIV.
Share the injections. Users of the injectable NAPZA usually share a syringe in the use of drugs.

Symptoms Of HIV and AIDS


Symptoms of HIV are divided into part. The first phase is the acute step of infection, and runs in the first part of the month after a person is infected with HIV. In this step, the immune process of an infected person forms an antibody to fight the HIV virus.in many cases, the symptoms in this step exit 1-2 months after the infection occurs. Patients usually do not understand already infected with HIV. This is because the symptoms are similar to the symptoms of flu, and are able to disappear and relapse. Keep in mind, in this step the quantity of viruses in the bloodstream is quite high. Therefore, the spread of infection is easier to run at this step.
Symptoms of acute infection are easy to severe, and able to run up to a part of the week, which includes:
Fever to chills.
The rash appears on the skin.
Vomiting.
Pain in joints and muscles.
Swelling of lymph nodes.
Headaches.
Abdominal pain.
Sore throat and canker sores.
After most months, HIV infection enters a latent step. The latent step infection is able to run up to some years or decades. In this step, the HIV virus develops and causes damage to the body's immunity.

Symptoms of HIV infection on a latent step vary. Some sufferers do not feel any symptoms throughout this step. However, some sufferers suffer from a number of symptoms, such as:

Weight loss.
Night sweats.
Fever.
Diarrhea.
Nausea and vomiting.
Shingles.
Swelling of lymph nodes.
Headaches.
The body starts to weaken.
The latent-step infection is delayed, which will cause HIV virus to develop. This condition caused HIV infection to enter the third step, namely AIDS. When the sufferer enters this step, the immune process has been severely damaged, in order to cause the sufferer to more easily attack other infections.

AIDS symptoms include:

Weight loss is unnoticed why.
Night sweats.
White patches on the tongue, mouth, genital, and anus.
Purple spots on skin that are not able to disappear. This complaint is likely an indication of the Kaposi sarcoma.
Fever that goes more than 10 days.
Chronic diarrhea.
Nerve disorders, such as difficulty concentrating or memory loss.
Fungal infections in the mouth, throat, or vagina.
Easily bruising or bleeding without cause.
Irritability and depression.
Rashes or spots in the skin.
Shortness of breath.
The body forever starts to weaken.
Complications of HIV and AIDS
HIV infections cause weakened immune processes, so that the body is more susceptible to disease, including:

Tuberculosis (TB). TB is a lung infection that often affects HIV sufferers, even the leading cause of death in AIDS sufferers.
Toksoplasmosis is a parasitic infection that is able to cause seizures to spread to the brain.
Cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus is an infection caused by mistakenly one group of herpes viruses. This infection is able to cause damage to the eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs.
Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a Candida yeast infection that is caused by a rash on a number of areas of the body.
This infection is caused by parasites living in the digestive process.
Cryptococcal Meningitis. Meningitis is an inflammation of the brain and spinal membranes caused by fungi.
Wasting syndrome. Wasting syndrome is a situation when AIDS sufferers lose 10% body weight. This condition is usually accompanied by diarrhea and chronic fever.
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). HIVAN is an inflammation of the sieve in the kidneys. This condition is caused by disruption to eliminate waste residual metabolism from the body.
Neurological disorders. Although AIDS does not infect nerve cells, it is likely that AIDS sufferers are able to experience a number of situations such as depression, irritability, and even hard to walk. One of the most frequent nervous disorders afflicted by AIDS sufferers is dementia.
In addition to some of the above diseases, there are some types of cancer that are capable of attacking HIV sufferers, among them are Kaposi and lymphoma sarcoma. The Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that is able to come out along blood vessels or lymph duct. Lymphoma is a cancerous lymph gland.




Understanding Of HIV And AIDS


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that causes damage to the immune system, by infecting and destroying CD4 cells. The more CD4 cells are destroyed, the weaker the body's immunity, to be vulnerable to disease.HIV infection that is not immediately addressed can develop into a real-life atmosphere called AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS is the end-stage derived from an HIV virus infection. In this step, the body's ability to fight the infection is gone completely.



Until this time the drug is not available to deal with HIV and AIDS. However, the drug is available to slow the progression of the disease, and to increase the patient's life expectancy.

HIV type
HIV Virus is divided into two main types, namely HIV-1 and HIV-2. Each type is redivided into more than one subtype. In many cases, HIV infection is caused by HIV-1, 90% of which is HIV-1 subtype M. Whereas HIV-2 is known to attack more than a small individual, especially in West Africa.

HIV infection can be caused by more than 1 viral subtype, especially if one is infected with more than 1 person. This condition is called superinfection. Although this atmosphere is only lasting not enough to come from 4% of HIV sufferers, the risk of superinfection is quite high in the first 3 years after infection.

HIV and AIDS in Indonesia
Based on data from Ministry of Health RI, during the year 2016 contained more than 40 thousand problems of HIV infection in Indonesia. Of these, HIV is most commonly held in heterosexuals, followed by male sex males (LSL), and users of the injectable NAPZA (advisers). In the same year, more than 7000 people suffer from AIDS, with more deaths coming from 800 people.

Last Data Kemenkes RI shows, in the range of January to March 2017 have been recorded more than 10,000 reports of HIV infection, and not not enough from the 650 AIDS problems in Indonesia.