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Wednesday, 13 November 2019

Understanding Heart Disease

Heart disease is a condition of heart disorder experiencing interference. The form of disorder itself can vary. There are disturbances in the heart's blood vessels, heart rhythm, heart valves, or congenital disorders born. The heart is a muscle that is divided into four spaces. Two rooms at the top are the right and left atrium. Two back spaces are located at the bottom, the right and left ventricle. Between the right and left chamber is separated by the muscular wall (septum) that serves to prevent the mixing of oxygen-rich blood with the blood of poor oxygen.

 The main function of heart is to drain oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body. After all organs of the body use oxygen in the blood, the poor blood of oxygen returns to the heart (right atrium), to be forwarded to the right ventricle through tricuspid valve. After the blood meets the right ventricle, tricuspid valve will close the usefulness of preventing blood from returning to the right atrium. Then, when the right ventricle contracts, the poor blood of oxygen will appear from the heart through the pulmonary valve and the pulmonary artery, then brought to the lungs to be filled with oxygen. The blood that has been enriched by oxygen, after it is taken to the left atrium through the pulmonary vein. When the left atrium contracts, the blood is passed to the left ventricle through the mitral valve. Once the left ventricle is filled with blood, the mitral valve closes to prevent the blood from returning to the left atrium. Then, the left ventricle will contract, and the blood will be streamed to all the body through the aortic valve. The circulatory cycle will remain repetitive.




Types of heart disease
The term heart disease involves a wide range of disorders in the heart, among others:
Coronary artery disease (coronary heart disease) – narrowing of the heart blood vessels.
Arrhythmias – Disorders of the heart rhythm.
Congenital heart disease – heart abnormalities from birth.
Cardiomyopathy – disorders of the heart muscle.
Cardiac infections – infections of the heart due to bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
Diseases of the heart valve – disorders in one or four erroneous heart valves.

HIV And AIDS Prevention


Until this time, no vaccine was able to prevent HIV infection. However, infection is prevented by more than one of the following:


 Use a new condom every sex related, whether sex is through the vagina or through the anus. When deciding on a lubricant condom, make sure the lubricant is made of basic water. Avoid condoms with lubricants made from basic oil, because it is able to cause condoms leaked. For oral sex, take advantage of unlubricated condoms.
Avoid having sex with more coming from one partner. Tell your spouse if you are positive in HIV, so that your spouse has HIV test. Discuss with the doctor if you are diagnosed with HIV positive in pregnancy, regarding subsequent treatment and plan of childbirth, to prevent transmission from mother to fetus.
For men, it is recommended circumcision to reduce the risk of HIV infection.
Immediately to the doctor if it is suspected to have been infected with HIV, if it is related to sex with HIV sufferers. The Doctor is able to prescribe post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) medication, to be consumed for 28 days. PEP drug is a combination of 3 antiretroviral drugs, which are able to prevent the growth of HIV infection. Nevertheless, the therapy with PEP must begin a maximum of 3 days after a viral infection occurs.


HIV And AIDS Treatment


Although until this time there is no cure for HIV, but there are medicine styles that are able to slow down the growth of viruses. This type of drug is called antiretroviral (ARV). ARV works together by discourage the elements that the HIV virus needs to multiply, and inhibit the HIV virus from destroying CD4 cells. Some of the ARV medicinal styles, among others:
Efavirenz
Etravirine
Nevirapine
Lamivudine
Zidovudine
While taking antiretroviral drugs, doctors will monitor the quantity of viruses and CD4 cells to assess the patient's response to treatment. Calculate CD4 cells will be done every 3-6 months. While the HIV RNA check is done since the beginning of treatment, continued every 3-4 months throughout the period of treatment.

Patients should immediately consume ARV so diagnosed with HIV, so that the growth of HIV virus is able to be controlled. Delay treatment will cause the virus to still cause damage to the immune system and increase the risk of HIV sufferers in AIDS attack. In addition, it is absolutely for patients to consume ARVS according to doctor's guidelines. Skipping taking the drug will cause HIV viruses to develop more rapidly and exacerbate the patient's condition. When the patient misses the schedule of consuming the drug, immediately drink so remember, and forever follow the next schedule. But suppose that the dose missed a lot, directly talk with the doctor. The Doctor is able to change the prescription or dose medication according to the patient's condition.
HIV patients include being able to consume more than 1 ARV drug in a day. Therefore, patients should understand the side effects arising from consuming this drug, including:
Diarrhea.
Nausea and vomiting.
Dry mouth.
Bone brittleness.
High blood sugar levels.
Abnormal cholesterol levels.
Muscle tissue Damage (rhabdomyolysis).
Heart disease.
Dizziness.
Headaches.
Sleeplessness.
The body feels tired.

Monday, 11 November 2019

Diagnosis Of HIV And AIDS


To determine if the patient is HIV-infected, the kudu is executed by HIV test. Screening is carried out by taking over blood samples or urine of the patient for investigation in the laboratory. Screening types to detect HIV are:

Antibody test. This test has the purpose of detecting antibodies produced by the body to fight HIV infection. Although accurate, the kudu pas 3-12 weeks so that the amount of antibodies in the body is adequate high to detected a test fitting.
Antigens test. Antigen tests have the purpose of detecting p24, a protein that is derived from HIV virus. Antigen tests can be executed 2-6 weeks after the patient is infected.



When screening shows the patient is infected with HIV (HIV positive), then the patient is undergoing a subsequent test. In addition to ensuring the screening results, the test can help the doctor clear the infection steps suffered, and also choose the appropriate treatment method. Just like screening, this test is carried out by taking over the blood samples of the patient, to be examined in the laboratory. Some of these tests include:

Count CD4 cells. CD4 is a member derived from the white blood cells destroyed by HIV. Therefore, there is a slight amount of CD4, so perhaps a person is attacked by AIDS. Under normal circumstances, CD4 counts are in the range of 500-1400 cells per cubic millimetre of blood. HIV infection develops into AIDS such as the result of the CD4 cell calculation below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
Viral load test (HIV RNA). Viral load tests have a purpose to calculate RNA, a member derived from a doubling HIV virus that benefits themselves. The amount of RNA more than 100,000 copies per milliliter of blood, a sign of HIV infection has recently occurred or is not handled. While the amount of RNA under 10,000 copies per milliliter of blood, indicates a viral growth that is not too fast. However, the condition always triggers the damage slowly against the immune process.
Resistance tests (immunity) to the drug. Some HIV subtypes are known to be immune to anti-HIV drugs. Through this test, doctors can select the style of anti HIV medication that is suitable for patients.

Causes Of HIV And AIDS


AIDS caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV that enters the body will destroy CD4 cells. CD4 cells are the derived part of the white blood cells against infection. The fewer CD4 cells in the body, the more prolonged the immune process of one's body.
HIV transmission occurs when blood, sperm, or vaginal fluid comes from someone infected into another person's body. This can happen through various means, among others:

Sex. HIV infection can occur through sex interactions either through the vagina or anal. Although it is too rare, HIV is included to be transmitted through oral sex. However, the transmission through oral sex will only occur if there is an open wound in the mouth of the sufferer, if such as bleeding gums or canker sores.
Share the syringe. Sharing the use of syringes with HIV sufferers, is a one-step mistake that can cause a person to be infected with HIV. For example, using a syringe together with a tattoo, or when using an injectable NAPZA.

Blood transfusions. HIV transmission can occur when a person receives a blood donation from an HIV sufferer.
In addition to the various steps above, HIV may be transmitted from the pregnant mother to the fetus it contains. The transmission of HIV virus to children is included in the process of childbirth, or through breast milk during breastfeeding.

Please note, HIV does not spread through skin contact such as shaking hands or embracing with HIV sufferers. Transmission may not occur through the saliva, if the sufferer has a thrush, bleeding gums, or an open wound in the mouth.

AIDS Risk Factors
HIV can infect everyone from all ages. However, the risk of contracting HIV is higher against uncircumcised men, whether heterosexual men or male sex males. The risk of contracting HIV is higher among individuals with a number of factors, including:

Sexual intercourse without a condom. The risk of transmission will be higher through the interaction of the hardcore sex, and the joint sex interactions change partner.
Suffer from sexually transmitted infections. Most sexually transmitted infections result in open wounds in the genital sufferer, thereby raising the risk of contracting HIV.
Share the injections. Users of the injectable NAPZA usually share a syringe in the use of drugs.

Symptoms Of HIV and AIDS


Symptoms of HIV are divided into part. The first phase is the acute step of infection, and runs in the first part of the month after a person is infected with HIV. In this step, the immune process of an infected person forms an antibody to fight the HIV virus.in many cases, the symptoms in this step exit 1-2 months after the infection occurs. Patients usually do not understand already infected with HIV. This is because the symptoms are similar to the symptoms of flu, and are able to disappear and relapse. Keep in mind, in this step the quantity of viruses in the bloodstream is quite high. Therefore, the spread of infection is easier to run at this step.
Symptoms of acute infection are easy to severe, and able to run up to a part of the week, which includes:
Fever to chills.
The rash appears on the skin.
Vomiting.
Pain in joints and muscles.
Swelling of lymph nodes.
Headaches.
Abdominal pain.
Sore throat and canker sores.
After most months, HIV infection enters a latent step. The latent step infection is able to run up to some years or decades. In this step, the HIV virus develops and causes damage to the body's immunity.

Symptoms of HIV infection on a latent step vary. Some sufferers do not feel any symptoms throughout this step. However, some sufferers suffer from a number of symptoms, such as:

Weight loss.
Night sweats.
Fever.
Diarrhea.
Nausea and vomiting.
Shingles.
Swelling of lymph nodes.
Headaches.
The body starts to weaken.
The latent-step infection is delayed, which will cause HIV virus to develop. This condition caused HIV infection to enter the third step, namely AIDS. When the sufferer enters this step, the immune process has been severely damaged, in order to cause the sufferer to more easily attack other infections.

AIDS symptoms include:

Weight loss is unnoticed why.
Night sweats.
White patches on the tongue, mouth, genital, and anus.
Purple spots on skin that are not able to disappear. This complaint is likely an indication of the Kaposi sarcoma.
Fever that goes more than 10 days.
Chronic diarrhea.
Nerve disorders, such as difficulty concentrating or memory loss.
Fungal infections in the mouth, throat, or vagina.
Easily bruising or bleeding without cause.
Irritability and depression.
Rashes or spots in the skin.
Shortness of breath.
The body forever starts to weaken.
Complications of HIV and AIDS
HIV infections cause weakened immune processes, so that the body is more susceptible to disease, including:

Tuberculosis (TB). TB is a lung infection that often affects HIV sufferers, even the leading cause of death in AIDS sufferers.
Toksoplasmosis is a parasitic infection that is able to cause seizures to spread to the brain.
Cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus is an infection caused by mistakenly one group of herpes viruses. This infection is able to cause damage to the eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs.
Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a Candida yeast infection that is caused by a rash on a number of areas of the body.
This infection is caused by parasites living in the digestive process.
Cryptococcal Meningitis. Meningitis is an inflammation of the brain and spinal membranes caused by fungi.
Wasting syndrome. Wasting syndrome is a situation when AIDS sufferers lose 10% body weight. This condition is usually accompanied by diarrhea and chronic fever.
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). HIVAN is an inflammation of the sieve in the kidneys. This condition is caused by disruption to eliminate waste residual metabolism from the body.
Neurological disorders. Although AIDS does not infect nerve cells, it is likely that AIDS sufferers are able to experience a number of situations such as depression, irritability, and even hard to walk. One of the most frequent nervous disorders afflicted by AIDS sufferers is dementia.
In addition to some of the above diseases, there are some types of cancer that are capable of attacking HIV sufferers, among them are Kaposi and lymphoma sarcoma. The Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that is able to come out along blood vessels or lymph duct. Lymphoma is a cancerous lymph gland.




Understanding Of HIV And AIDS


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that causes damage to the immune system, by infecting and destroying CD4 cells. The more CD4 cells are destroyed, the weaker the body's immunity, to be vulnerable to disease.HIV infection that is not immediately addressed can develop into a real-life atmosphere called AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS is the end-stage derived from an HIV virus infection. In this step, the body's ability to fight the infection is gone completely.



Until this time the drug is not available to deal with HIV and AIDS. However, the drug is available to slow the progression of the disease, and to increase the patient's life expectancy.

HIV type
HIV Virus is divided into two main types, namely HIV-1 and HIV-2. Each type is redivided into more than one subtype. In many cases, HIV infection is caused by HIV-1, 90% of which is HIV-1 subtype M. Whereas HIV-2 is known to attack more than a small individual, especially in West Africa.

HIV infection can be caused by more than 1 viral subtype, especially if one is infected with more than 1 person. This condition is called superinfection. Although this atmosphere is only lasting not enough to come from 4% of HIV sufferers, the risk of superinfection is quite high in the first 3 years after infection.

HIV and AIDS in Indonesia
Based on data from Ministry of Health RI, during the year 2016 contained more than 40 thousand problems of HIV infection in Indonesia. Of these, HIV is most commonly held in heterosexuals, followed by male sex males (LSL), and users of the injectable NAPZA (advisers). In the same year, more than 7000 people suffer from AIDS, with more deaths coming from 800 people.

Last Data Kemenkes RI shows, in the range of January to March 2017 have been recorded more than 10,000 reports of HIV infection, and not not enough from the 650 AIDS problems in Indonesia.

Rabies Prevention



Rabies is a disease that is too likely to be avoided. Some of the efforts below are also able to support in rabies prevention:

Still receiving vaccines before running high-risk activities resulted in contracting the rabies virus, even if it has been vaccinated.
Vaccinate on pets, such as dogs or cats.
Don't miss the pets wandering outside.
Report the wild animals to the agencies responsible for overseeing the wild animals.
Buried at least 1 metre deep, or burned animals that died from rabies.
Avoid immediate contact along with wild animals.
In addition, people who have a high risk of exposure to this virus, such as laboratory staff, animal caregivers or veterinarians, and people who are close together with the wild, are recommended to accept vaccines that have a purpose for Inhibit rabies. The vaccine that will be accepted initially is 3 doses within the 28 day period, after which it is able to re-give an additional dose every 2-3rd. If the person still has activities at high risk of being exposed to rabies. For tourists who will stop by the tourist areas that have wild animals, the vaccine is given 2 times along with a distance of 4 weeks.

Saturday, 9 November 2019

Vaccine And Rabies Serum



Anti-Rabies vaccine
The introduction of anti-rabies vaccine (VAR) after being bitten by animals that are considered to bring rabies viruses is the best step to avoid rabies. This vaccine is useful to stimulate the neutrals of rabies virus.

The dose of vaccine relief after being bitten by animals that are considered to bring rabies viruses to each person is able to vary. Generally, the vaccine is administered 4 times against people who have never been vaccinated, in a period of 21 days. As for people who have received the vaccine, the relief is only done 2 times in the period of 3 days. A person who can run a high-risk activity is exposed to rabies viruses, also recommended to receive additional vaccines prior to pioneering the activity.

The vaccine is administered through injections to the muscles around the upper limbs (deltoid) or thighs.

After being administered rabies vaccine, there is a rash, swelling, and pain to the injected area. In addition, vaccine help is also able to cause side effects in the form of:

Fever
Headaches
Vomiting
Muscle aches
Anti-Rabies Serum
Anti-Rabies Serum (SAR) is also useful to neutralize the virus against the wound while providing relief for 7-10 days before the time when the antibodies formed from the vaccine arise. Anti-rabies Serum can be given to people who are injured together with a high risk.

The dose of anti-rabies serum for each person is able to differ, according to the patient's weight. Generally, anti-rabies serum aid dose is 20 or 40 IU/kgBB, related type of serum given.

Rabies Treatment



When rabies has been in the step of inviting symptoms, subsequent situations have been risky and potentially result in a large potential death. Until this fitting, there is no method to make a cure rabies to the step.

Rabies is able to be prevented by carrying out after-activity of animals that are risky to transmit viruses, such as giving initial treatment of bite injuries and receiving serum as well as anti-rabies vaccines. In the bite wound, the initial treatment of the intended include:

Clean the wound area with soap.
Administration of antiseptics, such as alcohol or povidone iodine.
Immediately to the nearest fitness service.
If possible, the kudu patients carry out observations of the biting animals. Observations were shown by the siege of animals over 10-14 days, and witnessed the presence or absence of signs of rabies against the animal. It is intended to assess the kudu or whether the support of serum or anti-rabies vaccine.

In addition to observing animal-biting animals, the doctor includes assessing the injuries suffered by the patient. Assessment of wounds, including a person who has a vaccine or anti-rabies serum A high-risk wound and a mange with a vaccine or anti-rabies serum are cuts located on the part of the body that have many nerves such as the neck, head, face, and also the fingertip of the hands and feet, or further wounds are adequate in and the amount of more than 1.

When low risk injuries and bite-biting animals do not invite the signs of rabies along the observation system, patients do not need a serum or anti-rabies vaccine. However, if the wound is a high risk wound, and also a bite-biting animal cannot be observed or throughout the animal's observation inviting signs of rabies, patients receiving a serum or vaccine. Administration of serum and anti-rabies vaccine has a goal to neutralize the rabies virus that is in the wound and in the body.

Causes Of Rabies


The viral causes of rabies can attack mammals and human beings. Rabies viruses are essentially unable to absorb or infiltrate the human skin intact without wounds. The following viruses are found in saliva infected animals, and the spread to humans can walk through bites, a burst of saliva that goes into wounds on the skin or mucous layer (on the eyes or mouth), and the claws of the animal's finger nails contaminated by saliva That has rabies virus content.
When someone is bitten by a rabies virus carrier animal, the virus will enter the veins and spread in the body. When it reaches the brain, rabies viruses will multiply together quickly. This is after that it can create severe inflammation of the brain and spinal nerves that endanger the patient's atmosphere and potentially make a big death. The spread will run faster if the patient has a bite or a caker on the neck or head area.

The following are the animals that can have and transmit rabies viruses:

Dog
Cat
Monkey
Bat
Civet
Cow
Goat
Horse
Rabbit
Beaver
Fox
Raccoon
There are also several facets that can increase the risk of a person contracting rabies;

Live in an area far from vaccination or immunization areas.
Live in a country with poor sanitation.
Live in a lightweight environment accomplished wild animals.
Often run camping activities.
Often run activities in the wild, like climbing a mountain.
Has wounds on the skin.

Rabies Symptoms


The symptoms of rabies usually appear to be approximately 4-12 weeks after a person has been infected with rabies virus. Time before the onset of rabies symptoms is called incubation period. In more than one case, incubation times can run faster or slower.




Early symptoms of rabies include:

Fever
Limp
Tingling
Headaches
Sick of bite scars
Feeling anxious
Early symptoms of rabies had similarities to flu symptoms, resulting in many difficult to distinguish patients. It is better to directly check with a doctor unless bitten by an animal that is suspected of carrying a rabies virus.

Innumerable rabies sufferers may experience advanced symptoms. Patients who have reached this step will declare symptoms of hyperactivity, excitedly, or even acting unclear. The symptoms of connection further appear when the virus has attacked the central nervous system. The symptoms of the connection include:

Muscle cramps
Insomnia
Anxious
Confused
Hallucinations
Excessive saliva production
Experiencing difficulty swallowing
Shortness of breath
When rabies sufferers experience advanced symptoms, this indicates that the condition has worsened longer. Furthermore, rabies suffered could result in paralysis, coma, and later death.

Know the symptoms of Rabies Virus carrier animals
One can withstand rabies viruses by recognizing the symptoms of rabies virus carrier animals and then avoiding them. Dogs, animals that are close to humans and most often transmit rabies viruses to humans, have varying symptoms of rabies virus infection. Some of the symptoms that can be seen against a rabies virus-infected dog include:

Look jittery or scared
Get angry and lightly attack people
Fever
Foamy mouth
Not an appetite
Weak
Seizures
Animals infected with rabies virus are usually very sensitive to touch, light, and sound. Some come from even eating objects that are not food, and themselves in a dark room. Not infrequently rabies virus carrier animals died suddenly.

Rabies Definition


Rabies or known included along with the term "Mad Dog" is a viral infection against the brain and nervous system. This disease is considered too risky because it is potentially a great death. In th. 2017, in Indonesia contained more than 25,000 problems of animal bites of rabies was given an anti-rabies vaccine, but there was always 90 victims died. Most cases of death are contained in the provinces of West Kalimantan and South Sulawesi, which are 22 cases respectively.




Causes of Rabies
The Virus causes rabies to be transmitted by dogs through bites, claws, or saliva. However, there are other animals that are capable of carrying rabies viruses and transmit them to humans, such as cats, apes, civet, let alone rabbits.

In the matter of being too rare, the transmission of rabies viruses including being able to occur from humans to humans, through organ transplantation.

Rabies symptoms
Rabies symptoms generally appear approximately 4-12 weeks after the patient is bitten by an infected animal. Early symptoms include:

Fever
Weakened muscles
Tingling
Headaches
There are advanced signs capable of appearing against rabies sufferers. The next advanced symptom is a marker that the patient's condition worsened.

Rabies treatment
There has been no method that is certainly capable of tackling rabies that has caused symptoms. However, rabies treatment has been carried out since the patient is bitten by a infected animal who is considered to be carrying a rabies virus and there are no signs appearing.

The treatment is able to form Immunogulobin Aid (serum) or anti-rabies vaccine. Administration of serum or vaccine has a purpose to support the body in combating the viral causes of infection against the brain and nervous system.

Friday, 8 November 2019

Coronary Heart Disease Prevention



Coronary heart disease can be prevented together by undergoing a healthy lifestyle, like quitting smoking and drinking alcohol. In addition, manage the stress together well, if along with doing muscle relaxation or deep breathing exercises.

Another precaution is to regularly undergo blood sugar and cholesterol tests every two years. More regular examination will be advised, in patients with a history of hypertension and heart disease.

Some other steps to avoid coronary heart disease are:

Nutritious food consumption Balanced
Multiply the consumption of high-fiber foods, like vegetables and fruit. In addition, limit the salt content of the food, not more than 1 teaspoon a day. Avoid food along with high cholesterol content, especially if your LDL content is adequately high. Some types of foods are the following high cholesterol:

The food is fried.
Ati
Egg yolks
Butter
Cow brain and animal innards
Shrimp
Fast food
Other types of food that should be avoided are high sugar-rated foods, because it can add to the risk of developing diabetes, erroneously one in terms of the risk of coronary heart disease.

Conversely, increase the content of good cholesterol or HDL along with the increase in consumption of foods high in unsaturated fats, like fish oil, avocado, nuts, as well as olive oil and vegetable oil.

Perform regular workouts
A healthy diet combined together with regular exercise can maintain the ideal body weight. In addition, regular exercise can lower cholesterol content and keep blood pressure forever normal.

Spend at least 150 hours a week, to exercise. For example along with jogging 30 minutes daily. In addition to jogging, gymnastics, or a calculated pool can maintain cardiovascular health.

Consumption of drugs together correctly
It is absolutely essential to follow the doctor's instructions in drug consumption. It is important to remember that do not stop treatment without specifically consulting with a physician, as it may cause symptoms to deteriorate.

Complications Of Coronary Heart Disease


Uncontrolled coronary heart disease is capable of making a number of complications, such as:

Angina. Angina or chest pain is caused by narrowness of the arteries, so that the heart does not reach enough blood.
Heart attack. These complications run in the full-clogged arteries, due to fat buildup or blood clots.
Heart failure. Heart failure runs supposing the heart is not strong enough to pump blood. This condition is caused by a malfunction inflicted by a heart attack.
Heart rhythm Disorder (arrhythmia). Lack of blood supply to the heart or damage to the heart can alter the electrical impulses of the heart, in order to make arrhythmia.

Coronary Heart Disease Treatment


The treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) generally involves changes in life patterns that can be combined with medications or medical procedures. Living a healthy lifestyle can improve your heart's fitness. Examples are:

Quit.
Reduce or stop alcohol consumption.
Eating food together with balanced nutrition.
Reduce stress.
Maintain ideal body weight.
Exercise regularly.
A calculated physician may prescribe some types of medications to treat coronary heart disease, among others:

Blood thinners – Doctors can prescribe antiplatelet type blood thinners, except in patients with blood clotting disorders. Antiplatelet may help prevent blood clotting, and lower the risk of angina and also heart attacks. Examples of these drugs are aspirin and clopidogrel.
Statin – Statin is beneficial to lower high cholesterol, along with eliminating LDL derived from blood, thereby slowing the progression of heart disease. Examples of statins drugs commonly prescribed are atorvastatin and simvastatin.
Angiotensin modifier enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) – This type of drug is used to make cured hypertension, among them captopril and enalapril.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) – The function of this drug is similar to ACE inhibitors, which is dealing with hypertension. Examples are Valsartan and Telmisartan.
Beta blocker (beta blockers) – this medication is beneficial for preventing angina and dealing with hypertension. Examples are bisoprolol and metoprolol.
Nitrate – nitrate is beneficial to dilate blood vessels, so that blood flow to the heart increases, and the heart does not pump blood harder. One type of nitrate is nitroglycerin.
Calcium antagonists – This drug works to dilate blood vessels, so that blood pressure decreases. Examples are verapamil and diltiazem.
Diuretics – This type of drug works to reduce the moisture content and salt in the blood through urine, and dilate blood vessels so that blood pressure decreases.
When the drug is not effective in treating the symptoms, patients can be recommended to pioneer surgery. The doctor will be able to mobilize such operations as the narrowing of blood vessels caused by the buildup of atheroma. A number of actions are taken, such as:

Attach the Heart ring
The heart ring or coronary angioplasty is indicated together by inserting a catheter into the part of the artery that is subjected to narrowing. The doctor can then develop a small balloon through the catheter to dilate the narrowed artery. Thus, blood flow can be smoother. The Ring (stent) can be mounted in a function artery preventing renarrowing.

The procedure can be shown in a planned in patients with angina symptoms, or as an emergency action in a person who is experiencing a heart attack.

Bypass the Heart
This procedure is shown together by taking over the blood vessels derived from other parts of the body, to be pasted (grafted) into the parts between the large blood vessels (aorta) and the arteries, along with passing through the narrowed area. Thus, blood can flow smoothly through the new route.

Bypass Heart is appointed along with the dissect of the patient's chest. Therefore, this procedure is generally only shown as more than one blocked artery.

Heart transplant
This action is shown in the exception of the damage to the heart is really severe, and can no longer be addressed along with the drug. Cardiac transcillation is shown together by replacing the broken Heart, along with a healthy heart comes from donors.

Causes Of Coronary Heart Disease


Coronary heart disease (CHD) is caused by damage to the heart's blood vessels or coronary arteries. The following damages can be caused by the buildup of atheroma in arterial walls. Ateroma consists of cholesterol and residual substances of the body's metabolism.

The consistent ateromas accumulate, capable of carrying the impact of the thickened artery walls until narrowed. As a result, the heart does not get enough blood and oxygen intake. This condition is called atherosclerosis.

A number of factors are able to increase the risk of atherosclerosis, among others:

Smoking rooms
Cigarettes are a major risk factor of coronary heart disease. Nicotine content and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke can weigh the heart's work, along with a faster heart-spur. These two compounds are calculated to increase the risk of blood clotting.

Other compounds in the calculated cigarettes are able to cause damage to the heart artery walls and carry impact narrowing. Therefore, the risk of heart disease in smokers is almost 25 procents higher than those who do not smoke.

Diabetes
Diabetes carries the wall impact of thickened blood vessels and prevents blood flow. Diabetics are known to be 2 times more risky in the attack of coronary heart disease.

Thrombosis
Thrombosis is a blood clot capable of forming in vein or arterial veins. When formed in the arteries, it can prevent blood flow to the heart, to increase the risk of heart attack.

High blood pressure
High blood pressure or hypertension carries a mandatory heart impact work harder. One of the triggering factors of hypertension is consuming food along with a high salt content. Normal blood pressure ranges from 90/60 mmHg to 120/80 mmHg.

High cholesterol levels
Cholesterol is the fat produced by the liver, and is absolute for healthy cell formation processes. Nevertheless, high cholesterol content is able to raise the risk of coronary heart disease.

Cholesterol is divided into two, namely good cholesterol (HDL) and bad cholesterol (LDL). This LDL is able to accumulate in the walls of the arteries and bring the impact of narrowing. In healthy adults, the normal content of LDL in the blood is less than 100 mg/dL. As for individuals at risk of coronary heart disease, the LDL content is recommended under 100 mg/dL. The maximum limit of LDL content can be lower back for those who already suffer from heart disease or diabetes, which is below 70 mg/dL.

Excess weight
A person along with excess body weight or obesity is risky in the attack of coronary heart disease.

Less activity
Physical activity like exercise is able to reduce the risk of heart disease. The calculated sport is able to support controlling cholesterol and blood sugar content, preventing obesity, and also supporting lowering blood pressure.

Unhealthy diet
Risk of coronary heart disease is able to increase due to unhealthy diet, like very much consume food along with high sugar or salt content, or food together with high fat content.

Family freshness History
The risk of CHD increases in individuals who have families along with heart disease.

Gender
Generally, CHD has more to attack men than women. However, the risk of developing the same disease may increase in postmenopausal women.

Age
The older the person's age, the higher the risk in coronary heart disease. The disease more often affects men aged more than 45th. and women over 55 years.

Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a group of diseases that raise the risk of coronary heart disease, including hypertension, high cholesterol, and obesity.

Sleep apnea
Unresolved sleep apnea is able to raise the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and stroke.

Stress
Research shows, stress in various spheres of life, able to carry the impact of coronary heart disease. Countless stress is capable of carrying other risk factor impacts. For example, stress is capable of carrying the impact of someone smoking or overeating.

Alcohol
Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is able to cause damage to the heart muscle, and worsen the situation of one along with the risk factors of coronary heart disease, like hypertension and obesity.

Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia is a complication in the period of pregnancy, marked with hypertension and high protein content in urine. This condition raises the risk of heart disorders, calculated CHD.

Symptoms Of Coronary Heart Disease


A reduced blood intake to the heart may not lead to any symptoms at first. However, if added fat is accumulated in the arteries, it will be visible symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD), such as:

Angina
Angina is chest pain due to reduced blood supply to the heart muscle. Although it is generally not life-threatening, it can increase the risk of a heart attack or stroke.

Angina can occur in more than a minute, and is generally seen as being triggered by physical activity or stress. The pain experienced by angina is also varied. Angina is easy to cause discomfort such as heartburn. However, heavy angina attacks can result in chest pains such as being infected. The chest pain sensation can spread to the arms, neck, chin, abdomen, and back.

Cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest occurs when the arteries are fully clogged. This condition needs to be handled immediately, so that there is no permanent damage to the heart muscle.

Pain due to cardiac arrest is similar to angina. However, pain in the heart attack will be heavier, and can occur even if the sufferer is resting.

Heart attack symptoms can be pain that propagates from the chest to the arms, chin, neck, abdomen, and back. The pain can occur for more than 15 minutes. In addition to the symptoms, patients can also experience dizziness, sweating, nausea, and the body becomes limper.

Heart attacks can occur suddenly, especially against diabetics and elderly people.

Heart failure
Patients with coronary heart disease can also experience heart failure, when the heart is weak to pump blood throughout the body. The condition carries the impact of blood accumulating in the lungs, so that people experience shortness of breath.

Heart failure can occur instantly (acute), or develop gradually (chronic).

In more than one case, PJK sufferers experience different symptoms, such as palpitations (heart pounding). Some sufferers do not feel any symptoms, until diagnosed with CHD.

Understanding Coronary Heart Disease


Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition when the heart's blood vessels (coronary arteries) are blocked by fat deposits. When added fat accumulates, the artery will add narrowed, resulting in reduced blood flow to the heart.




Reduced blood flow to the heart will result in signs of CHD, such as angina and breathlessness. If the condition is not treated immediately, the arteries will be completely blocked, and cause a heart attack.

Coronary arteries are blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the heart. There are two types of coronary arteries, which are equally forked from aortic or large blood vessels, namely:

Main left coronary artery (left main coronary artery/LMCA) – This artery benefits the blood to the left foyer and left chamber of the heart. LMCA is divided into two parts, namely:
-Left anterior descending (LAD) – beneficial to drain blood to the front and left of the heart.

-Circumflex (LCX)-benefit to drain blood to the back and outer side of the heart.

Right coronary artery (right coronary artery/RCA) – This artery delivers blood to the right porch and the right chamber. In addition, RCA includes blood flow to the sinoatrial nodes and Atrioventricular nodes, which adjust the rhythm of the heart. RCA is divided into the right posterior descending and acute marginal artery. With LAD, RCA includes blood to moderate members of the heart, and septum (wall separator between the right chamber and left chamber of the heart).
Based on WHO data, coronary heart disease is one of the highest causes of death in the world. In th. 2015, recorded more than 7 million people die due to CHD. While in Indonesia, more than 2 million people are affected by PJK in th. 2013. Of these, PJK is more common in the age range of 45-54 years.