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Monday, 11 November 2019

Diagnosis Of HIV And AIDS


To determine if the patient is HIV-infected, the kudu is executed by HIV test. Screening is carried out by taking over blood samples or urine of the patient for investigation in the laboratory. Screening types to detect HIV are:

Antibody test. This test has the purpose of detecting antibodies produced by the body to fight HIV infection. Although accurate, the kudu pas 3-12 weeks so that the amount of antibodies in the body is adequate high to detected a test fitting.
Antigens test. Antigen tests have the purpose of detecting p24, a protein that is derived from HIV virus. Antigen tests can be executed 2-6 weeks after the patient is infected.



When screening shows the patient is infected with HIV (HIV positive), then the patient is undergoing a subsequent test. In addition to ensuring the screening results, the test can help the doctor clear the infection steps suffered, and also choose the appropriate treatment method. Just like screening, this test is carried out by taking over the blood samples of the patient, to be examined in the laboratory. Some of these tests include:

Count CD4 cells. CD4 is a member derived from the white blood cells destroyed by HIV. Therefore, there is a slight amount of CD4, so perhaps a person is attacked by AIDS. Under normal circumstances, CD4 counts are in the range of 500-1400 cells per cubic millimetre of blood. HIV infection develops into AIDS such as the result of the CD4 cell calculation below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
Viral load test (HIV RNA). Viral load tests have a purpose to calculate RNA, a member derived from a doubling HIV virus that benefits themselves. The amount of RNA more than 100,000 copies per milliliter of blood, a sign of HIV infection has recently occurred or is not handled. While the amount of RNA under 10,000 copies per milliliter of blood, indicates a viral growth that is not too fast. However, the condition always triggers the damage slowly against the immune process.
Resistance tests (immunity) to the drug. Some HIV subtypes are known to be immune to anti-HIV drugs. Through this test, doctors can select the style of anti HIV medication that is suitable for patients.

Causes Of HIV And AIDS


AIDS caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV that enters the body will destroy CD4 cells. CD4 cells are the derived part of the white blood cells against infection. The fewer CD4 cells in the body, the more prolonged the immune process of one's body.
HIV transmission occurs when blood, sperm, or vaginal fluid comes from someone infected into another person's body. This can happen through various means, among others:

Sex. HIV infection can occur through sex interactions either through the vagina or anal. Although it is too rare, HIV is included to be transmitted through oral sex. However, the transmission through oral sex will only occur if there is an open wound in the mouth of the sufferer, if such as bleeding gums or canker sores.
Share the syringe. Sharing the use of syringes with HIV sufferers, is a one-step mistake that can cause a person to be infected with HIV. For example, using a syringe together with a tattoo, or when using an injectable NAPZA.

Blood transfusions. HIV transmission can occur when a person receives a blood donation from an HIV sufferer.
In addition to the various steps above, HIV may be transmitted from the pregnant mother to the fetus it contains. The transmission of HIV virus to children is included in the process of childbirth, or through breast milk during breastfeeding.

Please note, HIV does not spread through skin contact such as shaking hands or embracing with HIV sufferers. Transmission may not occur through the saliva, if the sufferer has a thrush, bleeding gums, or an open wound in the mouth.

AIDS Risk Factors
HIV can infect everyone from all ages. However, the risk of contracting HIV is higher against uncircumcised men, whether heterosexual men or male sex males. The risk of contracting HIV is higher among individuals with a number of factors, including:

Sexual intercourse without a condom. The risk of transmission will be higher through the interaction of the hardcore sex, and the joint sex interactions change partner.
Suffer from sexually transmitted infections. Most sexually transmitted infections result in open wounds in the genital sufferer, thereby raising the risk of contracting HIV.
Share the injections. Users of the injectable NAPZA usually share a syringe in the use of drugs.

Symptoms Of HIV and AIDS


Symptoms of HIV are divided into part. The first phase is the acute step of infection, and runs in the first part of the month after a person is infected with HIV. In this step, the immune process of an infected person forms an antibody to fight the HIV virus.in many cases, the symptoms in this step exit 1-2 months after the infection occurs. Patients usually do not understand already infected with HIV. This is because the symptoms are similar to the symptoms of flu, and are able to disappear and relapse. Keep in mind, in this step the quantity of viruses in the bloodstream is quite high. Therefore, the spread of infection is easier to run at this step.
Symptoms of acute infection are easy to severe, and able to run up to a part of the week, which includes:
Fever to chills.
The rash appears on the skin.
Vomiting.
Pain in joints and muscles.
Swelling of lymph nodes.
Headaches.
Abdominal pain.
Sore throat and canker sores.
After most months, HIV infection enters a latent step. The latent step infection is able to run up to some years or decades. In this step, the HIV virus develops and causes damage to the body's immunity.

Symptoms of HIV infection on a latent step vary. Some sufferers do not feel any symptoms throughout this step. However, some sufferers suffer from a number of symptoms, such as:

Weight loss.
Night sweats.
Fever.
Diarrhea.
Nausea and vomiting.
Shingles.
Swelling of lymph nodes.
Headaches.
The body starts to weaken.
The latent-step infection is delayed, which will cause HIV virus to develop. This condition caused HIV infection to enter the third step, namely AIDS. When the sufferer enters this step, the immune process has been severely damaged, in order to cause the sufferer to more easily attack other infections.

AIDS symptoms include:

Weight loss is unnoticed why.
Night sweats.
White patches on the tongue, mouth, genital, and anus.
Purple spots on skin that are not able to disappear. This complaint is likely an indication of the Kaposi sarcoma.
Fever that goes more than 10 days.
Chronic diarrhea.
Nerve disorders, such as difficulty concentrating or memory loss.
Fungal infections in the mouth, throat, or vagina.
Easily bruising or bleeding without cause.
Irritability and depression.
Rashes or spots in the skin.
Shortness of breath.
The body forever starts to weaken.
Complications of HIV and AIDS
HIV infections cause weakened immune processes, so that the body is more susceptible to disease, including:

Tuberculosis (TB). TB is a lung infection that often affects HIV sufferers, even the leading cause of death in AIDS sufferers.
Toksoplasmosis is a parasitic infection that is able to cause seizures to spread to the brain.
Cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus is an infection caused by mistakenly one group of herpes viruses. This infection is able to cause damage to the eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs.
Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a Candida yeast infection that is caused by a rash on a number of areas of the body.
This infection is caused by parasites living in the digestive process.
Cryptococcal Meningitis. Meningitis is an inflammation of the brain and spinal membranes caused by fungi.
Wasting syndrome. Wasting syndrome is a situation when AIDS sufferers lose 10% body weight. This condition is usually accompanied by diarrhea and chronic fever.
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). HIVAN is an inflammation of the sieve in the kidneys. This condition is caused by disruption to eliminate waste residual metabolism from the body.
Neurological disorders. Although AIDS does not infect nerve cells, it is likely that AIDS sufferers are able to experience a number of situations such as depression, irritability, and even hard to walk. One of the most frequent nervous disorders afflicted by AIDS sufferers is dementia.
In addition to some of the above diseases, there are some types of cancer that are capable of attacking HIV sufferers, among them are Kaposi and lymphoma sarcoma. The Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that is able to come out along blood vessels or lymph duct. Lymphoma is a cancerous lymph gland.




Understanding Of HIV And AIDS


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that causes damage to the immune system, by infecting and destroying CD4 cells. The more CD4 cells are destroyed, the weaker the body's immunity, to be vulnerable to disease.HIV infection that is not immediately addressed can develop into a real-life atmosphere called AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS is the end-stage derived from an HIV virus infection. In this step, the body's ability to fight the infection is gone completely.



Until this time the drug is not available to deal with HIV and AIDS. However, the drug is available to slow the progression of the disease, and to increase the patient's life expectancy.

HIV type
HIV Virus is divided into two main types, namely HIV-1 and HIV-2. Each type is redivided into more than one subtype. In many cases, HIV infection is caused by HIV-1, 90% of which is HIV-1 subtype M. Whereas HIV-2 is known to attack more than a small individual, especially in West Africa.

HIV infection can be caused by more than 1 viral subtype, especially if one is infected with more than 1 person. This condition is called superinfection. Although this atmosphere is only lasting not enough to come from 4% of HIV sufferers, the risk of superinfection is quite high in the first 3 years after infection.

HIV and AIDS in Indonesia
Based on data from Ministry of Health RI, during the year 2016 contained more than 40 thousand problems of HIV infection in Indonesia. Of these, HIV is most commonly held in heterosexuals, followed by male sex males (LSL), and users of the injectable NAPZA (advisers). In the same year, more than 7000 people suffer from AIDS, with more deaths coming from 800 people.

Last Data Kemenkes RI shows, in the range of January to March 2017 have been recorded more than 10,000 reports of HIV infection, and not not enough from the 650 AIDS problems in Indonesia.

Rabies Prevention



Rabies is a disease that is too likely to be avoided. Some of the efforts below are also able to support in rabies prevention:

Still receiving vaccines before running high-risk activities resulted in contracting the rabies virus, even if it has been vaccinated.
Vaccinate on pets, such as dogs or cats.
Don't miss the pets wandering outside.
Report the wild animals to the agencies responsible for overseeing the wild animals.
Buried at least 1 metre deep, or burned animals that died from rabies.
Avoid immediate contact along with wild animals.
In addition, people who have a high risk of exposure to this virus, such as laboratory staff, animal caregivers or veterinarians, and people who are close together with the wild, are recommended to accept vaccines that have a purpose for Inhibit rabies. The vaccine that will be accepted initially is 3 doses within the 28 day period, after which it is able to re-give an additional dose every 2-3rd. If the person still has activities at high risk of being exposed to rabies. For tourists who will stop by the tourist areas that have wild animals, the vaccine is given 2 times along with a distance of 4 weeks.